Rare spearheads uncovered on Rottnest Island

Rottnest Island : Wikpedia

Staff and students from The University of Western Australia’s School of Indigenous Studies have made a surprise discovery on an excursion to Rottnest Island (Wadjemup), uncovering a rare nineteenth century glass spearhead.

Credit : The University of Western Australia’s School

Credit : The University of Western Australia’s School

It’s the third time in the past year that UWA staff and students have uncovered spearheads on the island.

Earlier this year a Heritage Studies student found a glass spearhead, and last year a staff member unearthed a ceramic one.

The spearheads are believed to have been used by Indigenous men and boys who were imprisoned on island between 1838 and 1931.

Records show photographs of Sunday hunting day when the Indigenous prisoners would hunt to supplement their diet of barley, cabbage and porridge with fish, snake and quokka.

It is believed the prisoners would find a place on top of a hill often overlooking the mainland where they would make spear tips from scrap pieces of glass.

Professor Len Collard from UWA’s School of Indigenous Studies said the most recent discovery occurred when the 45 students and eight staff from the UWA School of Indigenous Studies were learning about the history of Indigenous prisoners on the island.

“As I was digging around in the sand with my foot, something shiny glinted in the light and I recognised the object to be a glass spearhead,” Professor Collard said.

The group gathered around, keen to photograph the rare spearhead which is estimated to be at least 100 years old.

“I can’t say why these finds are happening,’ Professor Collard said.

“It could be due to our historic knowledge of knowing what to look for, and that artefacts may be more easily found due to soil and water erosion over time.”

“Either way, such natural discoveries illuminate the strength and technology of our cultural heritage and are important for education today and in future generations about our local history.”

The spearhead was re-buried at Rottnest to respect the Aboriginal tradition of keeping artefacts found in their resting place.

“The story goes that if you take Indigenous artefacts off the island the old people will follow them,” Professor Collard said.


Meet Retha Elger—the Museum Puppeteer

She doesn’t know the year, but Retha Elger and her husband Larry saw an ICR brochure in a friend’s living room and, since they were getting ready to teach about Genesis and were looking for good information and resources they could share with their class at church, they started out getting material from Dr. Henry Morris in the late 1980s. In the 1990s, they were getting resources from AiG. And as it happens sometimes, they decided to come to the Creation Museum and volunteer their time, starting way back in 2006! And as it happens sometimes, they decided to move to the area to be close to Answers in Genesis and the Creation Museum. Unfortunately, Larry went on to be with the Lord in January 2012.

But the dream was still alive for Retha Elger! She packed up and moved to Burlington, Kentucky, in the spring of 2012, and has been helping where she can and applying her talents at the museum quite regularly. She has been very useful in the stitching/sewing department creating covers for the microscopes donated to the museum, sewing the medieval costumes for Mega VBS in Tennessee, and sewing puppet costumes. She’s also made cargo bags for the Ark bay area and t-shirts for Rexyfor various events. But her latest endeavor was creating and making the alien costume that is very popular with our guests during Alien Invasion at the Creation Museum. Take a behind-the-scenes look at the preparation for Alien Invasion and learn about Retha’s heart for her ministry at the Creation Museum.

Retha and Neila
Neila and Buddy Davis

She is reminded of Buddy’s song, “He Makes Dreams Out of Nothing” because the Lord made her dream of working for the ministry come true.

48-million-year-old horse-like fetus discovered in Germany

Skeleton of a mare of Eurohippus messelensis is shown with fetus (white ellipse) CREDIT : Franzen et al. Photo: Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut Frankfurt, Sven Tränkner

A 48 million year-old horse-like equoid fetus has been discovered at the Messel pit near Frankfurt, Germany according to a study published October 7, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.

The authors of this study completed their investigation of the fetus from a 48 million year-old horse-like equoid uncovered near Frankfurt, Germany in 2000.

They evaluated the bones and anatomy and used scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution micro-x-ray to describe the ~12.5 cm fetus.

The fetus appears to be well-preserved, with almost all bones present and connected, except for the skull, which appears to have been crushed.

The well-preserved condition of the fossil allowed the researchers to reconstruct the original appearance and position of the fetus. They estimate that the mare may have died shortly before birth, but don’t believe the death was related to birth.

The authors also found preserved soft tissue, like the uteroplacenta and one broad uterine ligament, which may represent the earliest fossil record of the uterine system of a placental mammal.

Applying SEM, the authors discovered a bacterial lawn replacing the soft tissues, as is common with other specimens found in that area.

The observable details correspond largely with living mares, which lead the authors to posit that the reproductive system was already highly developed during the Paleocene, and possibly even earlier.

Access to the freely available paper: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137985


Learn About Creation Colleges at College Expo

Do you have a college-age student or one that soon will be? Back in 2011, Answers in Genesis hosted at the Creation Museum its first College Expo. What made this especially eventful was the fact that it was the first-ever Creationist College Expo. Through the years, many colleges that were founded by Bible-believing Christians have since moved away from the foundational truths that are found in the book of Genesis. A revealing study by Ken Ham and Greg Hall in their book Already Gone showed the results of a survey of 200 colleges and universities to see if the schools were following the core beliefs upon which they were founded. The findings were shocking! One of the outcomes was AiG’s decision to compile a list of colleges and universities that parents and students could refer to when making a choice about which college would be best to build upon their Christian worldview. Too many parents sent off their children to a “Christian” college only to have their child’s faith ruined!

College Expo

This year’s College Expo will be hosted on November 6–7, 2015, and you and your future college student will have the opportunity to interact with representatives from Bible-affirming, Creation-upholding Christian colleges from all over the country. For more information about this free event, go to CreationCollExpo.org.

College Expo

Before your visit, or as you prepare to begin the college search with your teen, we encourage you to sit down with your family to watch a Bible-upholding movie called A Matter of Faith. It’s a story about a young Christian woman who goes off to college and is quickly influenced and torn down in her faith by her freshman-year biology professor. You’ll see how this young woman’s dad then steps up to do something about it. AiG’s founder and president Ken Ham said, “A Matter of Faith has a message that is highly relevant and desperately needed for America today. . . . We are fully behind A Matter of Faith as it defends the authority of the Bible beginning in Genesis.”

College Expo

Also, be sure to check out the Answers in Genesis Creation Colleges page that has information to help you begin your application process. You’ll learn which college presidents and academic chairs have signed AiG’s tenants of creation and you’ll be able to see each of those schools’ statement of faith. This resource is designed to help you and your family choose a college that will build up your college student’s faith in God’s Word from the very beginning.

Asteroid impact, volcanism were one-two punch for dinosaurs

Paul Renne inspects a reddened soil horizon between lava flows, a so-called red bole. Mark Richards photo.

Berkeley geologists have uncovered compelling evidence that an asteroid impact on Earth 66 million years ago accelerated the eruptions of volcanoes in India for hundreds of thousands of years, and that together these planet-wide catastrophes caused the extinction of many land and marine animals, including the dinosaurs.

For 35 years, paleontologists and geologists have debated the role these two global events played in the last mass extinction, with one side claiming the eruptions were irrelevant, and the other side claiming the impact was a blip in a long-term die-off.

The new evidence includes the most accurate dates yet for the volcanic eruptions before and after the impact. The new dates show that the Deccan Traps lava flows, which at the time were erupting at a slower pace, doubled in output within 50,000 years of the asteroid or comet impact that is thought to have initiated the last mass extinction on Earth.

Both the impact and the volcanism would have blanketed the planet with dust and noxious fumes, drastically changing the climate and sending many species to an early grave.

“Based on our dating of the lavas, we can be pretty certain that the volcanism and the impact occurred within 50,000 years of the extinction, so it becomes somewhat artificial to distinguish between them as killing mechanisms: both phenomena were clearly at work at the same time,” said lead researcher Paul Renne, a UC Berkeley professor-in-residence of earth and planetary science and director of the Berkeley Geochronology Center. “It is going to be basically impossible to ascribe actual atmospheric effects to one or the other. They both happened at the same time.”

The geologists argue that the impact abruptly changed the volcanoes’ plumbing system, which produced major changes in the chemistry and frequency of the eruptions. After this change, long-term volcanic eruptions likely delayed recovery of life for 500,000 years after the KT boundary, the term for the end of the Cretaceous and the beginning of the Tertiary period when large land animals and many small sea creatures disappeared from the fossil record.

Layered lava flows of the Deccan Traps east of Mumbai, India. Mark Richards photo.

Layered lava flows of the Deccan Traps east of Mumbai, India. Mark Richards photo.

“The biodiversity and chemical signature of the ocean took about half a million years to really recover after the KT boundary, which is about how long the accelerated volcanism lasted,” Renne said. “We are proposing that the volcanism unleashed and accelerated right at the KT boundary suppressed the recovery until the volcanoes waned.”

Co-author Mark Richards, a UC Berkeley professor of earth and planetary science and the one who originally proposed that the comet or asteroid impact reignited the Deccan Traps lava flows, is agnostic about which event was the real death knell for much of life on Earth. But the link between the impact and the flood basalts is becoming harder to deny.

“If our high-precision dates continue to pin these three events – the impact, the extinction and the major pulse of volcanism – closer and closer together, people are going to have to accept the likelihood of a connection among them. The scenario we are suggesting – that the impact triggered the volcanism – does in fact reconcile what had previously appeared to be an unimaginable coincidence,” he said.

Renne, Richards and their colleagues will publish the new dates for the Deccan Traps eruptions in the Oct. 2 issue of the journal Science.

Impact or volcanism?

Since 1980, when UC Berkeley geologist Walter Alvarez and his father, the late UC Berkeley physicist Luis Alvarez, discovered evidence of a comet or asteroid impact on Earth 66 million years ago, scientists have argued about whether the impact was the cause of the mass extinction that occurred at the same time, the end of the Cretaceous period, or the KT boundary. Some argued that the huge volcanic eruptions in India known as the Deccan Traps, which occurred around the same time, were the main culprit in the extinctions. Others insisted the death knell had been the impact, which left behind a large crater dubbed Chicxulub off Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula, and viewed the Deccan Traps eruptions as a minor sideshow.

Earlier this year, Richards, Renne and eight other geoscientists proposed a new scenario: that the impact ignited volcanoes around the globe, most catastrophically in India, and that the two events combined to cause the KT extinction.

In attempts to test this hypothesis, the team last year collected lava samples from throughout the Deccan Traps east of Mumbai, sampling flows from near the beginning, several hundred thousand years before the extinction and near the end, some half a million years after the extinction. High-precision argon-40/argon-39 isotope dating allowed them to establish the chronology of the flows and the rate of flow over time.

In the Science paper, they describe major changes in the Deccan Traps volcanism, which was probably “bubbling along happily, continuously and relatively slowly” before the extinction, Renne said. After the impact, the eruption rate more than doubled and the volcanism became more punctuated, with more voluminous lava flows interspersed with long periods of quiet. This is consistent with a change in the underground plumbing feeding the flows, he said: Smaller magma chambers before the impact became larger, which means they took longer to fill but spewed more lava when they did erupt.

“At the KT boundary, we see major changes in the volcanic system of the Deccan Traps, in terms of the rate at which eruptions were happening, the size of the eruptions, the volume of the eruptions and some aspects of the chemistry of the eruptions, which speaks to the actual processes by which the magmas were generated,” Renne said. “All these things changed in a fundamental way, and increasingly it seems they happened right at the KT boundary. Our data don’t conclusively prove that the impact caused these changes, but the connection looks increasingly clear.”

Richards said that a large nearby earthquake of a magnitude 8, 9 or 10 – as large or larger than the quake that struck Japan in 2011 – could also have reignited the Deccan Trap flows. In fact, large quakes may have rattled underground magma chambers and ignited eruptions throughout Earth’s history. But the simultaneous changes in the lava flows and the impact at the KT boundary seem more than mere coincidence.

“These changes are consistent with an accelerated rate of magma production and eruption that you could get from a large earthquake such as would be created by the Chicxulub impact,” he said.

In 2013, Renne and his team at the Berkeley Geochronology Center and elsewhere also dated the KT boundary extinction and dust from the impact and found they occurred within less than 32,000 years of one another – the blink of an eye in geologic terms, he said. Renne’s team plans to obtain isotope dates for more basalt samples from the Deccan Traps to detail the history of the lava flows that cover much of western India, in order to better understand how they changed with time and correlate to the impact and extinctions. Meanwhile, Richards is working with volcano experts to understand how large ground shaking caused by earthquakes or asteroid impacts affects volcanic eruptions.

Other co-authors of the paper are graduate student Courtney Sprain and volcanologist Steve Self of UC Berkeley; Loÿc Vanderkluysen of the Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science at Drexel University in Philadelphia; and Kanchan Pande of the Department of Earth Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay in Mumbai.

The dating work was supported by the Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation and UC Berkeley’s Esper S. Larsen Fund.

Written by Robert Sanders


Camel Care

Two of the most popular animals at our petting zoo are the camels, Gomer and CJ. They are enormous animals but are so friendly! Children love feeding them and are fascinated and sometimes freaked out watching the camel’s lip pick up food out of their extended palms. But a real treat is the chance to ride a camel. It’s not every day that you get to ride a camel—unless of course you live in the Middle East!

But have you ever thought about what it takes to saddle up a camel? It’s not just a matter of tossing on a blanket and saddle. The zoo keepers have to comb down the fur so that there is nothing stuck in the hair under the saddle that could irritate the animal; plus, we want our camels to be clean and look their best for our guests. So before the rides begin, our staff needs at least 30 minutes to curry one of the boys. Unless, of course, the camels have found something fun to do! Check out this video!

Saturday Events in October Draw Big Crowds

We had a great turnout for our annual Día Latino this past Saturday. Hundreds of our Spanish-speaking friends availed themselves of the opportunity to experience the fun and fellowship that can be had at the Creation Museum on special days like this. What was really remarkable was the total number of guests that arrived for the first Saturday of October, making it the best one since the museum’s opening, for this time of the year.

Día Latino
Día Latino
Día Latino
Día Latino

Our next big Saturday is for our Deaf friends on October 10. We anticipate a good response, as this event has proven very popular since we began this Deaf Day several years ago. We even have a special shirt that can be purchased for this day, and we also have for the first time a Deaf presenter, Calvin Farley, doing a special talk titled, “Why Genesis Is Relevant Today.”

The next Saturday, October 17, is our annual Raptor Run 5K. Whether you like to sprint or just walk toward the finish line, join us for a good time and a chance to even meet some new friends! Then stay for Fall Fun Day, which begins right after the race and will be filled with fun for the whole family!

Secrets of the Second World War revealed in the Great Fen

Image Credit : Peter Atkinson

A week-long excavation, to unearth a Mark 1 Spitfire which crashed at Holme Lode in the Great Fen, on 22 November, 1940.

Following the excavation the land will be restored to a mix of fenland habitats and managed as part of the Great Fen nature reserve by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire. The Heritage Lottery (HLF) is funding the excavation as part of the Great Fen Education and Community programme and is also supporting the post-dig land restoration. A Battle of Britain Memorial overflight is scheduled for 3pm on Thursday 8 October

The pilots headrest from a Mark 1 Spitfire - Credit : Defence Archaeology Group

The pilots headrest from a Mark 1 Spitfire – Credit : Defence Archaeology Group

Spitfire X4593, of 266 Rhodesian Squadron Royal Air Force was based at RAF Wittering; on a routine training flight with two other Spitfires. Pilot Officer Harold Edwin Penketh was seen to break formation entering a dive from which he failed to fully recover. Witnesses stated that his aircraft partially recovered at around 2,000ft but then re-entered a dive and struck the ground vertically.

Plt Off Penketh did not attempt to use his parachute and was killed in the crash, his body was recovered and returned to his home town of Brighton. Investigations concluded that either a failure of the oxygen system or other physical failure had occurred.

A geophysical survey of the site was conducted this August by Peter Masters, from Cranfield University Forensic Institute, and the remains of the plane have been located. The excavation will be carried out by Oxford Archaeology East, project managed by Stephen Macaulay. They will be joined by personnel of the Defence Archaeology Group who oversee OPERATION NIGHTINGALE, a ground-breaking military initiative using aspects of field archaeology and Heritage skills to aid recovery and skill development of service personal and veterans who are suffering injuries due to military service, plus aviation archaeology experts from Historic England will also be on site. Great Fen staff and volunteers from the Great Fen Archaeology Group will also join the excavation.

Material from the excavation site will be taken removed for sorting and cleaning; it is likely that the major airframe components will need mechanical removal. All artefacts remain the property of the Ministry of Defence; RAF Wyton Pathfinder Museum will receive the excavated items into storage in the first instance. A full archive report will be produced within 12 months of the completion of fieldwork and deposited in the Cambridgeshire County Council Historic Environment Record.

Now is the ideal opportunity to excavate the Spitfire as it coincides with the 75th anniversary of Battle of Britain and of the crash itself but more importantly it allows us to record this important piece of our fenland heritage before the rising water table – as we restore the area to wetlands – makes this impossible.

The Great Fen Discovery Day at Holmewood Hall on Saturday 17 October will tell the story of the excavation and some finds from the excavation will be on display.


Holiday Concepts: The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona

The Arizona-Sonora Desert Gallery stands at 2021 North Kinney Road, in Tucson, Arizona 85743 It is a world-renowned zoo, organic past museum and also organic yard. The Sonoran Desert is an arid area partially of Arizona, The golden state of California and also the Mexican states of Sonora as well as Baja The golden state. The museum includes informative screens of living animals as well as plants indigenous to the Sonoran Desert. The Museum has functioned given that September 1, 1952.

Facts about Arizona: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arizona

Jeopardized and also threatened varieties on exhibition feature:

  • Mexican wolf
  • Thick-billed parrot
  • Ocelot
  • Margay
  • Jaguarondi
  • Desert pupfish
  • Sonora chub
  • Ponytail chub
  • Razorback chump
  • Gila topminnow
  • Colorado River squawfish
  • Isla San Esteban chuckwalla
  • Apache trout

The littlest pet is the leafcutter ants and also the most extensive creature is the American black bear. The oldest non-living animal at the Museum is actually the Sonorasaurus dinosaur dating from the Cretaceous.
You can easily plan to invest at minimum 2 to 3 hours visiting the Desert Museum. Due to the fact that the Desert Gallery is mainly an exterior experience, you ought to organize on putting on a hat, some really good sunblock as well as comfy footwears, or even proper cooler climate clothes throughout colder amount of times of the year. All in the house exhibits are cooled down.
Wheelchairs and also baby strollers are offered complimentary. There are actually two energy scooter-style tire office chairs accessible for $10 daily.
There are trained Museum volunteers capable that can help you obtain a better understanding of the complex relationships in between the plants, animals and the natural surroundings of the Sonoran Desert.
Museum Hours

The Museum levels daily of the year:

  • Summer months Saturday Evenings: 7:30 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. (June– August).
  • March– September: 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (no entry after 4:15 p.m.).
  • Oct– February: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (no admittance after 4:15 p.m.).

Museum Entrance Prices.

  • June– August: $9 Adults, $2 Youngsters 6– 12.
  • September – May: $12 Grownups, $4 Little ones 6– 12.
  • Youngsters 5 as well as under are actually FREE.

The exhibits at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Gallery remodel the natural landscape of the Sonoran Desert Area very truthfully. You may experience eye-to-eye exchange hill cougars, pasturage canines, Gila monsters and more. There are much more than 300 creature types and also 1,200 type of plants, as effectively as practically 2 miles of paths traversing 21 acreages of the desert. The Museum’s primary purpose is to inspire people to inhabit tranquility along with the environment by encouraging passion, gratitude as well as understanding of the Sonoran Desert.

See More Post About Great Art Museums

heritage consultants

African Fabrics: Rich Cultural Heritage

African materials echo their diverse custom and culture. They are captivating and also easily identifiable by their colors, themes, and structures. It does not matter whether you are decorating your residence or searching for sensational clothes. African materials will supply you with merely exactly what you need. Sometimes, there specify symbolic meanings related to these fabrics. African imports, that include textiles, have a stable and also enhancing need in the global market today.

Facts about African Textiles: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_textiles

African textiles go back to the earliest sub-Saharan times. African textiles draw their motivation from the abundant African social heritage which involved America along with slave trade. Many servants were experienced in weaving. Archeologists have actually discovered remnants of old and earliest African textiles in various components of Africa. Old African clothing was made from tree bark as well as pet hides or hairs. Real African textiles are purely typical, adhering to regular African themes and also earthy colors. Brocade material, George textile, Rabal, Kente print material, Kuba towel, Kitenge, mud towel, bark cloth, hand-woven Nigerian Aso oke textile, Adire connection & color, Egyptian Ankh gold print material, burgundy pattern materials, indigo hand rotated material, black/grey pattern fabric, multi-colored confetti textile, African flower textiles, cowrie shell print material, African town print materials, leopard prints, wax prints etc. are some usual and also popular African materials. You will likewise find lots of embroidered, sewed and also patterned fabrics. A lot of the textiles are offered in 12 backyard bolts. African style apparel, as well as regular wear, is manufactured with these textiles.

heritage consultants

Textiles woven from locally increased cotton, sheep and also camel woollen, hemp, flax, silk, mud towel, rayon, suede, shoelace, brocade, polyester, wax print, batik, Kitenge, Kente fabric etc. are quite particular of Africa. In Africa, weavers are mainly men and women spin the string. Also, youngsters are skillful in the fine art of weaving. Both solitary, as well as double-heddle looms, are used for weaving; nonetheless, ground looms are also made use of in some components of Africa. Use of vibrantly tinted threads, as well as veggie and mineral dyes, are 2 most prominent attributes of African materials. Most styles and also motifs used for beautifying the fabrics have specific good names as well as vary from plants, pets, events, sayings, tribal habits to different scripts.

Afro-centric layouts today are demanded throughout the world. African style, grace, beauty, and fashion are very closely connected to their origins. They strongly attract you with their distinct earthy allure as well as simpleness. Today, several developers are showcasing their developments made from authentic African textiles at distinguished international style shows. You could discover these textiles at African fabric shops or buy them online at different buying sites. Each material has its very own past history, own tale and also very own significance.

African textiles are iconic and genuinely captivating as well as today you will certainly see many style conscious people showing off dresses made from initial African fabrics. Not simply clothing, African materials are just fantastic for bags, wall surface hangings, pillow and also quilt covers, home design, furniture, crafts as well as various other innovative undertakings. Most of these materials are hand-crafted and African artisan’s hand-dye symbols into them to show day-to-day life, African sayings, flora and also fauna.